What are Physicals?
A routine physical exam is recommended at least once each year for patients of all ages. This complete medical examination allows the doctor to evaluate the patient's overall health and detect any illnesses or medical conditions in the early stages. Early detection of a disease may result in more effective treatment. An annual physical examination helps individuals to address any health issues and allows the doctor to give recommendations for healthy living and preventative care.
The Physical Examination
Prior to a physical examination, patients are encouraged to make a list of any questions or concerns that they may have regarding their health. Patients should discuss these concerns with the doctor during their appointment. The doctor performs a physical examination and takes routine measurements of weight, height and blood pressure. Various health screenings are also performed, depending on the age, health and family history of the patient. Additional tests may include:
- Blood tests
- Vision tests
- Hearing tests
- Osteoporosis screening
- Cardiovascular evaluation
- Breast exam
- Prostate screening
- Rectal exam
Blood tests are commonly used to check cholesterol levels as well as to measure kidney, liver, thyroid, and heart function. The doctor will review the patient's immunization records and may administer any necessary vaccinations. An electrocardiogram or chest X-ray may be performed on patients with existing or suspected heart or lung problems.
Physical Examination Results
After a routine physical examination the doctor may recommend lifestyle modifications or prescribe medication, for any conditions that may have been diagnosed. Additional diagnostic tests may be recommended to further evaluate suspected conditions and create an appropriate treatment plan. By undergoing a routine physical examination and preventative screening tests, patients may increase their chances for living a longer, healthier life.
Every student should have an annual physical examination before going back to school to begin the new term. In many states, this medical examination is mandated by law and most schools require that a medical form be filled out before the child is permitted to attend classes. This checkup is necessary for the child's health and well-being and for the health of everyone else in the school environment. A typical physical examination includes the taking of a medical history, an observation and evaluation of posture, stature, mobility, joints and organs, as well as tests for vision and hearing. In many elementary schools, a school physician is available to perform medical examinations, but most students are examined by their private physicians.
In most cases, a dental examination will also be necessary and will be performed by a dentist at another time.
Reasons for a School Physical
There are many good reasons for a student to have a medical examination prior to attending school. All involve protecting individual children and their classmates. The doctor determines whether the student:
- Has a contagious condition
- Has a weight problem
- Is growing at a normal rate
- Needs glasses, a hearing aid, or other devices
- Requires further diagnostic testing
- Is up to date on immunizations
- Needs special classroom accommodations
- Requires medications during the school day
By performing a school physical, the doctor is able to evaluate the general health of the child or adolescent and to determine whether any further medical consultation is necessary.
Taking a medical history is part of any thorough physical examination. The doctor will ask questions designed to protect the student from possible dangers during an average school day or during participation in sports or other exercise. The physician will make a note of any:
- Congenital defects
- Chronic disease conditions
- Chest pain or shortness of breath
- History of seizures
- Previous surgical procedures
- Prescription medications
- Previous injuries
- Family history of medical problems
When the student is an adolescent, this portion of the school physical may also provide an opportunity to discuss matters of possible concern, such as smoking, drinking, drug use, sexual activity or depression.
The School Physical Procedure
During the course of the school physical, the doctor:
- Records height and weight
- Checks pulse and blood pressure
- Evaluates posture, mobility, muscle strength
- Checks heart, lung and bowel function
- Examines ears, nose and throat
- Administers vision and hearing tests
Depending on the state, the particular school, and the age of the student, other screenings may be performed, such as for lead or tuberculosis. If any immunizations are necessary, they may be administered during the school physical.
Many employers require an employment physical to determine the suitability of an individual for a job. A pre-employment physical exam may be requested to ensure new hires are physically capable of performing their work and meet general health standards. Employment examinations may include physical examinations, health inquiries, psychological tests, drug testing, and mental health assessments. These exams compare the health of the potential employee with the expected demands of the job, to ensure that the individual is fit to do the job.
The goal of the employment physical is to determine whether or not the prospective employee is capable of performing the physical demands of the job. The physical also intends to enhance safety at the workplace, and minimize the risk of work site-related accidents. If a prospective employee has some physical issues that are not essential to the job, the employment physical also allows the employer to make proper accommodations for the employee.
Employment Physicals and Testing
Employment physical examinations are often regulatory and compliance examinations for:
- Department of Transportation (DOT)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- HazMat (Hazardous materials)
These physical examinations are often required by the federal government and employees must pass a medical evaluation conducted by a healthcare professional prior to employment. Additional employment examinations and tests include:
- Pre-employment physicals
- Drug and alcohol screening
- Health risk assessments
- Executive physicals
Fitness for duty examinations are also performed to medically evaluate the ability of a worker to return to duty after a medical leave. This examination can help to determine if the employee is fully able to perform the job or if any restrictions or accommodations may be necessary to protect the employee and employer.
The Employment Physical
Employment physicals may include exams tailored to the specific needs of a workplace. Prior to the examination, the patient's complete medical and occupational histories are reviewed and the physical examination commonly includes the following:
- Vision testing
- Hearing test
- Pulmonary function testing (PFT)
- Blood pressure check
- Height and weight check
- Physical abilities tests (PATs)
- Cardiovascular evaluation
- Drug testing
Blood and urine tests are also administered. Some tests are tailored specifically to evaluate the physical requirements that are essential for the job.
A physical examination benefits both the potential employee and the employer. Employers are assured that the employee is physically fit for the job, and employees can be assured of safe and appropriate assignments in the workplace.